History of Four-wheel drive 4x4
In 1893, before the establishment of a modern automotive industry in Britain, English engineer Bramah Joseph Diplock patented a four-wheel-drive system for a traction engine, including four-wheel steering and three differentials, which was subsequently built. The development also incorporated Bramah's Pedrail wheel system in what was one of the first four-wheel-drive automobiles to display an intentional ability to travel on challenging road surfaces. It stemmed from Bramagh's previous idea of developing an engine that would reduce the amount of damage to public roads.
Ferdinand Porsche designed and built a four-wheel-driven Electric vehicle for the k. u. k. Hofwagenfabrik Ludwig Lohner & Co. at Vienna in 1899, presented to the public during the 1900 World Exhibition at Paris. An electric hub motor at each wheel powered the vehicle. Although clumsily heavy, the vehicle proved a powerful sprinter and record-breaker in the hands of its owner E.W. Hart. Due to its unusual status the so-called Lohner-Porsche is not widely credited as the first four-wheel-driven automobile.
The first four-wheel-drive car, as well as hill-climb racer, with internal combustion engine, the Spyker 60 H.P., was presented in 1903 by Dutch brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker of Amsterdam. The two-seat sports car, which was also the first ever car equipped with a six-cylinder engine, is now an exhibit in the Louwman Collection (the former Nationaal Automobiel Museum) at the Hague in The Netherlands.
Designs for four-wheel drive in the U.S., came from the Twyford Company of Brookville, Pennsylvania in 1905, six were made there around 1906; one still exists and is displayed annually.The second U.S. four-wheel-drive vehicle was built in 1908 by (what became) the Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) of Wisconsin (not to be confused with the term "FWD" as an acronym for front-wheel drive). FWD would later produce around 15,000 of its four-wheel-drive Model B trucks for the British and American armies during World War I. Approximately 11,500 of the Jeffery or Nash Quad models (1913–1919) were similarly used. The Quad not only came with four-wheel drive and four-wheel brakes, but also featured four-wheel steering
The Reynolds-Alberta Museum has a four-wheel-drive "Michigan" car from about 1905 in unrestored storage. The Marmon-Herrington Company was founded in 1931 to serve a growing market for moderately priced four-wheel-drive vehicles. Marmon-Herrington specialized in converting Ford trucks to four-wheel drive and got off to a successful start by procuring contracts for military aircraft refueling trucks, 4×4 chassis for towing light weaponry, commercial aircraft refueling trucks, and an order from the Iraqi Pipeline Company for what were the largest trucks ever built at the time.
Daimler-Benz also has a history in four-wheel drive. In 1907 the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft had built a four-wheel-driven vehicle called Dernburg-Wagen, also equipped with four-wheel steering, that was used by German colonial civil servant, Bernhard Dernburg, in Namibia. Mercedes and BMW, in 1926, introduced a rather sophisticated four-wheel drive, the G1, the G4 and G4 following. The 1937 Mercedes-Benz G5 and BMW 325 4×4 featured full-time four-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, three locking differentials, and fully independent suspension. They were produced because of a government demand for a four-wheel-drive passenger vehicle. The modern G-series/Wolf such as the G500 and G55 AMG still feature some of the attributes, with the exception of fully independent suspension since it hinders suspension articulation. The Unimog is another Mercedes truck.
It was not until "go-anywhere" vehicles were needed for the military that four-wheel drive found its place. The Jeep, originally developed by American Bantam but mass-produced by Willys and Ford, became the best-known four-wheel-drive vehicle in the world during World War II.Willys (since 1950 owner of the Jeep name) introduced the CJ-2A in 1945 as the first full-production four-wheel-drive vehicle for sale in the general marketplace. It set the pattern for many other four-wheel drive vehicles.
The Land Rover appeared at the Amsterdam Motor Show in 1948, originally conceived as a stop-gap product for the struggling Rover car company, and despite chronic under-investment succeeded far better than the passenger cars. Land Rover developed a luxury 4WD with the Range Rover in the 1970s, which, unlike some offerings from other manufacturers, was capable of serious off-road use. The inspiration was a Willys MB that was frequently run off-road on the farm belonging to chief engineer Maurice Wilks, and was felt that it needed some refinement.
Kaiser Jeep, the successor to Willys, introduced a 4WD wagon called the Wagoneer in 1963. It was revolutionary at the time, not only because of its technical innovations such as an independent front suspension and the first automatic transmission with 4WD, but also because it was equipped and finished as a regular passenger automobile.The Super Wagoneer (1966 to 1969) was powered by Rambler or Buick V8s. Its high level of equipment made it the first "luxury" SUV. American Motors (AMC) acquired Kaiser's Jeep Division in 1970 and quickly upgraded and expanded the entire line of serious off-road 4WD vehicles. The top range full-size Grand Wagoneer continued to compete with traditional luxury cars. It was relatively unchanged during its production through 1991, even after Chrysler's buyout of AMC.
Jensen applied the Formula Ferguson (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system to 318 units of their Jensen FF built from 1966 to 1971, marking the first time 4WD was used in a production GT sports car. While most 4WD systems split torque evenly, the Jensen split torque roughly 40% front, 60% rear by gearing the front and rear at different ratios. Subaru introduced the mass-produced Leone in 1972 featuring a part-time four-wheel-drive system that could not be engaged on dry pavement. The American Motors Corporation (AMC) introduced a full-time AWD vehicle the same year as the Subaru in the Jeep Cherokee and Wagoneer with Quadra Trac (1973 model year models were for sale starting September 1972). It dominated all other makes in FIA rally competition, due to the performance of the full-time AWD, which did not require the driver to get out of the vehicle to lock hubs or manually select between 2WD and 4WD modes in the car like other American four-wheel-drive vehicles of the period. Drivers Gene Henderson and Ken Pogue won the Press-on-Regardless Rally FIA championship with a Quadra Trac equipped Jeep in 1972
American Motors introduced the innovative Eagle for the 1980 model year. These were the first mass production cars to use the complete FF system. The AMC Eagle was the world's first complete line (sedan, coupe, and station wagon) of permanent automatic all-wheel-drive passenger models. The new Eagles combined Jeep technology with an existing and proven AMC passenger automobile platform. They ushered a whole new product category of "sport-utility" or crossover SUV. AMC's Eagles came with the comfort and high-level appointments expected of regular passenger models and used the off-road technology for an extra margin of safety and traction.
The Eagle's thick viscous fluid center differential provided quiet and smooth transfer of power that was directed proportionally to the axle with the greatest traction. This was a true full-time system operating only in four-wheel drive without undue wear on suspension or driveline components. There was no low range in the transfer case. This became the forerunner of the designs that followed from other manufacturers. The automobile press at the time tested the traction of the Eagles and described it as far superior to the Subaru's and that it could beat many so-called off-road vehicles. Four Wheeler magazine concluded that the AMC Eagle was "The beginning of a new generation of cars."
The Eagles were popular (particularly in the snowbelt), had towing capacity, and came in several equipment levels including sport and luxury trims. Two additional models were added in 1981, the sub-compact SX/4 and Kammback. A manual transmission and a front axle-disconnect feature were also made available for greater fuel economy. During 1981 and 1982 a unique convertible was added to the line. The Eagle's monocoque body was reinforced for the conversion and had a steel targa bar with a removable fiberglass roof section. The Eagle station wagon remained in production for one model year after Chrysler acquired AMC in 1987.
Audi also introduced a permanently all-wheel-driven road-going car, the Audi Quattro, in 1980. Audi's chassis engineer, Jorg Bensinger, had noticed in winter tests in Scandinavia that a vehicle used by the German Army, the Volkswagen Iltis, could beat any high-performance Audi. He proposed developing a four-wheel-drive car, that would also used for rallying to improve Audi's conservative image. The Audi Quattro system became a feature on production cars.
In 1987, Toyota also developed a car built for competition in rally campaigns. A limited number of road-going FIA Homologation Special Vehicle Celica GT-Fours (otherwise known as Toyota Celica All-Trac Turbo in some markets) were produced. The All-Trac system was later available on serial production Toyota Camry, Toyota Corolla, and Toyota Previa models.
Some of the earliest mid-engined four-wheel-drive cars were the various road-legal rally cars made for Group B homologation, such as the Ford RS200 made from 1984 to 1986. In 1989, niche maker Panther Westwinds created a mid-engined four-wheel-drive, the Panther Solo 2.
In 2008, Nissan introduced the GT-R featuring a rear mounted transaxle. The AWD system requires two drive shafts, one main shaft from the engine to the transaxle and differential and a second drive shaft from the transaxle to the front wheels.
The Ferrari FF introduced in 2011 features a unique system called 4RM, which does away with the heavy center differential and instead attaches a smaller, second transaxle that draws power from the front of the engine. This allows the car to keep the traditional rear transaxle design without the need for a second driveshaft for the front wheels.
Today, sophisticated all-wheel-drive systems are found in many passenger vehicles and some exotic sports cars and supercars. Mainstream luxury and near-luxury vehicles which can absorb the extra cost involved, and for which the fuel economy penalty of some 5% is not an issue, are offered with AWD (or "4x4" or "4WD") as a safety enhancement to meet owners' expectations for a full complement of up-to-date technology.
Spyker is credited with building and racing the first ever four-wheel racing car, the Spyker 60 HP in 1903.
Bugatti created a total of three four-wheel-drive racers, the Type 53, in 1932, but the cars were notorious for having poor handling.
Miller produced the first 4WD car to qualify for the Indianapolis 500, the 1938 Miller Gulf Special.
Ferguson Research Ltd. built the front-engine P99 Formula One car that actually won a non-World Championship race with Stirling Moss in 1961. In 1969, Team Lotus raced cars in the Indy 500 and two years later in Formula 1 with the Lotus 56, that had both turbine engines and 4WD, as well as the 4WD-Lotus 63 that had the standard 3-litre V8 Ford Cosworth engine. Matra also raced a similar MS84, and McLaren entered their M9A in the British Grand Prix, while engine manufacturers Ford-Cosworth produced their own version which was tested but never raced. All these F1 cars were considered inferior to their RWD counterparts, as the advent of aerodynamic downforce meant that adequate traction could be obtained in a lighter and more mechanically efficient manner, and the idea was discontinued, even though Lotus tried repeatedly.
Nissan and Audi had success with all-wheel drive in road racing with the former's advent of the Nissan Skyline GT-R in 1989. So successful was the car that it dominated the Japanese circuit for the first years of production, going on to bigger and more impressive wins in Australia before weight penalties eventually levied a de facto ban on the car. Most controversially was the win pulled off at the 1990 Macau Grand Prix where the car led from start to finish. Audi's dominance in the Trans-Am Series in 1988 was equally controversial as it led to a weight penalty mid season and to a rule revision banning all-AWD cars, its dominance in Supertouring eventually led to a FIA ban on AWD system in 1998.
New 2011 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations may revive AWD/4WD in road racing, though such systems are only allowed in new hybrid-powered Le Mans Prototypes. One example is the Audi R18 e-tron quattro (winner of 2012 race, the first ever hybrid/4WD to win Le Mans), utilizing an electric motor in the front axle while combining the engine motor in the rear.
In construction equipment
During the late 1980s, there was a movement by construction equipment builders to find a way for their equipment to handle any terrain they can drive across. The first to utilize a 4WD system was Case Corporation (then known as J.I. Case Co.), who designed a hearty four-wheel-drive system that was instantly tested, and placed on several models of their Loader/Backhoe line. This system was first used in 1987, and has become somewhat of a benchmark in construction equipment. Today, several construction equipment manufacturers offer a 4WD system as an option on their equipment, mostly backhoes.
The 4WD systems on construction equipment are much stronger and larger than their automobile counterparts, incorporating several redundancies in their design, it is also equipped with an external method of lubricating the gears inside of the transfer case, and the front differential, which are both monitored in the cab by temperature gauges, this is to primarily prevent overheating, and welding of the gears in the transfer case.
The change in outer appearance of a loader–backhoe equipped with 4WD is instantly noticeable, mostly in the difference of the front hubs, which are flat in design, instead of having the standard rear drive appearance, with the large cone protruding from the rims. The second noticeable difference is the design of the front tires, which have a tread on them similar to that of the rear tires, but in smaller scale. The final difference is usually the designation "4×4", placed somewhere noticeable, usually on either the battery box or the rear fenders.
Introduction to off-roaders
|1933||Mitsubishi Motors||Mitsubishi PX33||x|
|1941||Volkswagen||Typ 128 Schwimmwagen||Military|
|1948||Rover||Land Rover Series||x|
|1951||Alfa Romeo||Alfa Romeo Matta||Military|
|1951||Austin Motor Company||Austin Champ||Military|
|1956||Auto Union||DKW Munga||Military|
|1970||British Leyland||Range Rover||x|
Introduction to passenger cars
|1966||Jensen||Jensen FF||x (320 units)|
|1980||American Motors||AMC Eagle||x|
|1982||Renault||Renault 18 Combi 4×4||x|
|1984||Alfa Romeo||Alfa 33 4×4||x|
|1984||Mitsubishi||Mitsubishi Cordia 4WD Turbo||x|
|1984||Volkswagen||Volkswagen Passat Syncro||x|
|1984||Peugeot||Peugeot 205 T16||x (200 units)|
|1985||Lancia||Lancia Delta HF 4WD||x|
|1985||Mazda||Mazda 323 4WD||x|
|1986||Toyota||Toyota Celica GT-Four All-Trac Turbo||x|
|1986||Ford||Ford RS200||x (220 units)|
|1987||Mercedes-Benz||Mercedes W124 4MATIC||x|
|1987||Porsche||Porsche 959||x (292 units)|
|1988||Opel||Opel Vectra 4×4||x|
|1990||Chevrolet||Chevrolet Astro Full-time AWD||x|
|1991||Lamborghini||Lamborghini Diablo VT||x|
|1991||Bugatti||Bugatti EB110||x (ca. 300 units)|
|2008||Saab||Saab 9-3 Turbo X||x|
|2011||Ferrari||Ferrari FF||x (ca. 800 units)|
Systems by design type
Center differential with mechanical lock
- Alfa Romeo 164 Q4 (central viscous coupling, epicyclic unit and Torsen rear differential)
- Alfa Romeo 155 Q4 (central epicyclic unit, Ferguson viscous coupling and Torsen rear differential)
- AMC Eagle (central viscous coupling)
- Audi - Quattro Coupé, 80, 90, 100 & 200 (locking center and rear differentials) - up to 1987
- Audi Q7 -double pinion 50/50 with lockup clutch pack
- BMW 3 series and 5 series in the 1980s - planetary center differential with a 37-63 (front-back) torque split and viscous lock (also in rear differential but not front differential)
- Chevrolet Rounded-Line K Fleetside, K Stepside, K Blazer, and K Suburban - permanent four-wheel drive (1973-1979) two-speed New Process 203 transfer case, center planetary differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential.
- Ford - Escort (RS 2000 16v 4×4 models and RS Cosworth), Sierra Cosworth, Sierra and Granada 4×4 models,
- Ford Expedition (1997–present) and Expedition EL/Max (2007–present) - automatic ControlTrac four-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential
- Ford Explorer (1995–2010) - automatic ControlTrac four-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential
- GMC Rounded-Line K Wideside, K Fenderside, K Jimmy, and K Suburban - permanent four-wheel drive (1973-1979) two-speed New Process 203 transfer case, center planetary differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential.
- Mercedes-Benz GL-Class - 4Matic all-wheel-drive system
- H1 & Humvee NVG 242HD AMG open center differential, locked center differential, Neutral, low range locked. Also Torsen1 differential at the front and rear axle, The H1 moved to Torsen2 when ABS was added. The H1 Alpha had optional locking differentials in place of torsens
- Hummer H2, H3 40/60 planetary with lock
- Jeep Grand Cherokee, Commander (except models equipped with Quadra-Trac I)
- Jeep Liberty, Jeep Cherokee (XJ), Dodge Durango (Select-Trac)- NV 242 transfer case- rear drive, open center differential, locked center differential, Neutral, low range
- Full size Jeeps with Borg Warner QuadraTrac: limited slip center differential, 50/50 locked center differential. Low range could be used in locked or unlocked mode, allowing for use of low range on pavement.
- Land Rover Defender (and Series III V8 models)
- Land Rover Discovery/LR3
- Land Rover Freelander
- Lada Niva - full-time 4WD using open center differential. Transfer case with high/low range and manual central diff lock. Low range selectable in locked or unlocked mode, allowing use on pavement.
- Lexus RX300 -viscous coupling across the otherwise open center differential.
- Lincoln Navigator (1998–2006) - automatic ControlTracfour-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential
- Navigator and Navigator L (2007–present) use one-speed single range transfer case, no reduction gearing
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog (locking center and rear with up to 10 low range gears).
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class (locking center and lockers on both front- and rear axle)
- Mitsubishi Pajero (also known as Montero or Shogun)
- Porsche Cayenne - 38/62 planetary with lockup clutch pack
- Range Rover Classic 1970–1995 all full-time 4WD either plate LSD, manual lock or Ferguson viscous centre differential.
- Range Rover 2nd Gen. 1994–2002 full-time 4WD Ferguson viscous centre differential
- Suzuki Grand Vitara/Escudo -full-time 4WD using limited-slip center differential, off-road 4WD with selectable center differential lock and low range transfer case 4 mode (4h, 4h lock, 4l n), traction control and electronic stability control
- Subaru - manual transmissions come with 50/50 viscous-type center differential; performance models include a planetary differential with computer regulated lockup; automatic transmission models have an electronically controlled variable transfer clutch.
- Toyota Land Cruiser
- Toyota Sequoia (Multi-mode)
- Volkswagen Touareg -double pinion 50/50 with lockup clutch pack
Torsen center differential
- Alfa Romeo Q4s - with (TorsenT-3):
- 156 Crosswagon and Sportwagon
- Brera, Spider
- Audis with quattro - various iterations of Torsen, the T-3 starting from the 2007 B7 RS4
- 80, 90 & Coupé (Typ 89)
- 100 & 200
- A4, S4, RS4
- A5 & S5
- A6, S6, RS6
- A8, S8
- Q5, Q7
- Bentley Continental GT, Bentley Continental Flying Spur (2005) initially Torsen T-2, current have T-3
- Chevrolet Trailblazer SS Torsen T-3
- Lexus GX470, Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 120 Torsen T-3
- Range Rover 3rd Gen. 2002–2009
- Toyota 4Runner (only Limited V8 model & 2010 Limited V6 model) Torsen T-3 with lock
- Toyota FJ Cruiser (only manual models) Torsen T-3 with lock
- Toyota Hilux Surf Torsen T-3 with lock
- Toyota Land Cruiser 200/2008/V8 Torsen T-3 with lock
- Volkswagen Passenger Cars with 4motion:
- Volkswagen Passat Torsen T-2 (B5.5 model, not latest B6 model with transverse engine)
- Volkswagen Phaeton Torsen T-2
Non-locking center differential
- BMW 3-series and X5 between 2001 and xDrive - planetary center differential with permanent 38-62 (front-back) torque split #
- Cadillac Escalade, STS AWD, SRX AWD (The first two generations had a viscous clutch on the center differential) #
- Chrysler 300C AWD#
- Dodge Ramcharger 1974–1981 - NP203 FullTime 4WD Transfer Case
- Dodge Magnum, Charger AWD #
- GMC Yukon Denali, XL Denali, Sierra Denali #
- Mercedes 4MATIC cars, R class, and ML class (note some MLs had low range) #
- Plymouth Trailduster 1974–1981 - NP203 FullTime 4WD Transfer Case
- Toyota Highlander #
- Toyota Sienna AWD (-2010 only) #
The above systems ending with "#" function by selectively using the traction control system (via ABS) to brake a slipping wheel.
- Acura RL, RDX (SH-AWD) Right and left axle shaft
- Acura MDX SH-AWD & VTM4
- Ford Explorer - Ford's full-time shift-on-the-fly Intelligent 4WD System (I-4WD) on the 2011 Explorer with Terrain Management System and RSC (Roll Stability Control), Curve Control functionality, HDC (Hill Descent Control) and HAA (Hill Ascent Assist).
- Honda Ridgeline
- Honda Pilot
- Infiniti FX (ATTESA E-TS)
- Mercedes-Benz 1st generation 4MATIC (normally rear-drive, automatic clutch in transfer case engages 4WD on demand)
- Mitsubishi GTO MR/3000GT VR-4
- Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Series S-AWC
- 2010 Mitsubishi Outlander GT S-AWC
- Mitsubishi Outlander (2003–2006) independent front and rear axle coupling, and Active Center Differential.
- Nissan GT-R (ATTESA E-TS)
- Nissan Skyline GT-R (ATTESA E-TS and ATTESA E-TS-PRO) front axle coupling, rear differential locking
- Nissan Skyline GTS4 (ATTESA E-TS)
- Nissan A31 Cefiro SE4 (ATTESA E-TS)
- Porsche 959 PSK front axle coupling, rear differential locking
- Saab 9-3, Saab 9-5, Saab 9-4X (Saab XWD).
Multi-plate clutch coupling
- Audi A3 quattro, Audi S3, Audi TT quattro, Audi R8 (with Haldex Traction)
- BMW xDrive: latest 3 Series, latest 5 series, X3, latest X5 series
- Chevrolet Equinox (GMPCA)
- Chrysler Pacifica (BorgWarner ITM3e) (on 2007 model)
- Dodge Nitro (Quadra-Trac 1)
- Dodge Caliber
- Ford: Escape, Freestyle, Edge, Fusion, Five Hundred (Freestyle, FiveHundred Haldex Traction based)(Escape Control Trac II, based)
- Honda CR-V, HR-V, Element
- Hyundai Santa Fe, Hyundai Tucson Borg-Warner ITM 3e magnetic multi-plate clutch coupling
- Hyundai Veracruz IMJ magnetic multi-plate clutch coupling
- Infiniti: G35x, M35x
- Jeep Compass (Freedom Drive)
- Jeep Grand Cherokee and SRT8 NVG 249, 247
- Land Rover Freelander 2/LR2 (also Haldex Traction)
- Lamborghini: AWD variants VT series (viscous traction)
- Lincoln: MKS, MKZ
- Mazdaspeed6 (a power takeoff unit linked to clutch pack with torque sensitive rear differential)
- Mazda: Tribute, CX-7, CX-9 (tribute Control Trac II, based)
- Mercury: Milan, Montego, Mariner (Montego Haldex Traction-based)
- Mitsubishi Outlander (current generation)
- Nissan Murano automatic with manual lockup switch
- Porsche 911 AWD variants (a version of BorgWarner ITM3e) — excluding the 964-series Porsche 911 Carrera 4 31/69 planetary center differential
- Pontiac Torrent (GMPCA)
- Subaru low powered automatic transmission models
- Subaru Legacy, Outback, Impreza, Forester, Tribeca automatic transmission models: mechanical front drive, clutch coupled rear axle.
- Suzuki: SX4, XL7, Aerio
- Toyota RAV4 - from 2005 (third generation only)
- Toyota Sienna AWD (2011 and newer only)
- Volkswagen Golf 4motion, Volkswagen Jetta 4motion, Volkswagen Tiguan 4motion, Volkswagen Passat (B6) 4motion (initially viscous coupling, later with Haldex Traction)
- Volvo: S40, S60, S80, V50, V70, XC70, XC90 (Visco system until 2003; then all Haldex Traction-based)
Note: the above all function like 2WD when multi-plate clutch coupling is not engaged (with exception of Subaru models), and like 4WD highrange in a part-time 4WD system when the clutch is engaged (usually by computer although some allow manual control). Some in this category have varying degrees of control in the torque distribution between front and rear by allowing some of the clutches in a multi-plate clutch coupling to engage and slip varying amounts. An example of a system like this is the BorgWarner i-Trac(TM) system. Note: the Haldex Traction-based car list was created from the list on Haldex Traction corporate web site: Haldex Cars A version of the BorgWarner ITM3e system is used on 2006 and up Porsche 911TT's. The Borg-Warner ITM 3e is also used in the 2006-now Hyundai Santa Fe and the Hyundai Tucson. In the Hyundais, the ITM 3e acts like a full-time AWD with 95:5 normal torque split. In extreme conditions, the system can be locked in a 50:50 split via the 4WD LOCK button.
- Ferrari FF (4RM) rear transaxle with secondary front transaxle connected directly to the engine.
In Ferrari's 4RM (so far the only system of this type), the engine is set between the traditional Ferrari rear transaxle and a secondary front transaxle. The car itself operates primarily as a rear wheel drive vehicle, clutches in the front transaxle only engage when the rear wheels begin to slip. The front transaxle itself only has 2 gears equivalent to 3rd and 7th in the rear transaxle.
These are vehicles that have no center differential. Since there is no center differential to allow for speed differences between the front and rear wheels when turning, a small amount of tire slippage must occur during turns. When used on slick surfaces, this is not a problem, but when turning on dry pavement, the tires grip, then are forced to slip, then grip again, and so on, until the turn is completed. This causes the vehicle to exhibit a 'hopping' sensation. Using part-time 4WD systems on dry pavement is not recommended, as damage to the drive-line eventually occurs.
- Chevrolet Rounded-Line K Fleetside, K Stepside, K Blazer, and K Suburban - conventional four-wheel drive (1973-1987) or shift-on-the-move four-wheel drive (1981-1987) two-speed New Process 205 or 208 transfer case. 0:100 torque split in Two High. 50:50 torque split lock in Four High and Four Low. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. Note Rounded-Line "K" Pickups and Utilities were temporarily renamed to "V" for 1987
- Chevrolet Tahoe, Trailblazer (LT1 and LT3 models only), Tracker, Suburban, Silverado, Avalanche, Colorado, S-10 series, K5 Blazer
- Dodge Power Wagon (a Ram version with front and rear differential locks)
- Dodge Ram, Dakota
- Dodge Nitro (Quadra-Trac 2)
- Ford F series
- Ford Explorer (1991-1994) & Sport Trac
- Ford Ranger
- Geo Tracker
- GMC Rounded-Line K Wideside, K Fenderside, K Jimmy, and K Suburban - conventional four-wheel drive (1973-1987) or shift-on-the-move four-wheel drive (1981-1987) two-speed New Process 205 or 208 transfer case. 0:100 torque split in Two High. 50:50 torque split lock in Four High and Four Low. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. Note Rounded-Line "K" Pickups and Utilities were temporarily renamed to "V" for 1987
- GMC Envoy, Yukon, Sierra, Jimmy, Sonoma
- Infiniti QX56 (All-mode 4WD) Auto-engages 4WD with slip
- Isuzu i-series
- Jeep Cherokee (Quadra-Trac 2)
- Jeep Cherokee (XJ), Jeep Comanche, Jeep Grand Cherokee (ZJ), Jeep Liberty (Command-Trac)
- Jeep Wrangler (Rubicon model has locking front and rear differentials)
- Kia Sorento (some 2002-2009 models with 2WD/4HI/4LO - mostly LX)
- Land Rover Series I, II & III (except V8 models)
- Lincoln Mark LT
- Mazda B-series
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class
- Mitsubishi Raider
- Nissan Patrol
- Nissan Terrano II
- Nissan Armada, Pathfinder (All-mode 4WD) Auto-engages 4WD with slip
- Nissan Titan, Xterra, Frontier (rear locker an option)
- Subaru Loyale, GL/DL, BRAT Front/4wd/4wd lo, Justy
- Suzuki Sidekick, Jimny,Vitara
- Toyota Hilux
- Toyota Tacoma (rear locking differential optional)
- Toyota Tundra TRD
- Toyota FJ Cruiser (automatic transmission models) (also locking rear differential)
- Toyota 4Runner (only SR5 and pre 2010 Limited V6 models, 2010 Trail edition V6 models) (also locking rear differential on 2010 V6)